There are two types of people who reach leadership positions. One type is driven by the hope or desire to succeed; the other by the fear of failure.
In his study of military leaders, the psychologist, Norman Dixon, observed: “Whereas the former achieves out of a quest for excellence in his job, the latter achieves by any means available, not necessarily because of any sincere devotion to the work, but because of the status, social approval and reduction of doubts about the self that such achievement brings.”
Norman notes that although these two types of achievement-motive may bring about rapid, even spectacular, promotion, their nature and effects are very different.
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